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Among the most important literature in the history of Indian religions and culture, the Upanishads played an important role in the development of spiritual ideas in ancient India, marking a transition from Vedic ritualism to new ideas and institutions. Of all Vedic literature, the Upanishads alone are widely known, and their central ideas are at the spiritual core of Hindus. 1st-millennium BCE through about 15th-century CE. With the translation of the Upanishads in the early 19th century they also started to attract attention from a western audience.
Upanishads and called it “the production of the highest human wisdom”. Modern era Indologists have discussed the similarities between the fundamental concepts in the Upanishads and major western philosophers. Other dictionary meanings include “esoteric doctrine” and “secret doctrine”. According to native authorities, Upanishad means setting to rest ignorance by revealing the knowledge of the supreme spirit. The word appears in the verses of many Upanishads, such as the fourth verse of the 13th volume in first chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad.
Patrick Olivelle translates it as “hidden connections”. The authorship of most Upanishads is uncertain and unknown. Radhakrishnan states, “almost all the early literature of India was anonymous, we do not know the names of the authors of the Upanishads”. Women, such as Maitreyi and Gargi participate in the dialogues and are also credited in the early Upanishads.